Archive for Report

Animal Experimentation

Animals are widely used in laboratories. Mice, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys are a few examples
of animals used by researches and scientists for scientific and medical purposes. Scientists use the
animal to investigate biological processes in humans and animals; to study the causes of diseases; to test drugs, vaccines, and surgical techniques; and to evaluate the safety of chemicals used in pesticides, cosmetics, and other products.

Many animal function like humans so that they can be good models to understand the human body. Some animal suffer from the same diseases as humans do. Animal also carry a number of genes that are identical to human genes. With those similarities, scientists are able to learn much about the human by studying the animals.


Earthquake is a sudden shaking of the earth’s surface that often causes a lot of damage. It is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes may happen naturally or as a result of human activities. Smaller earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments.

At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes can be seen from the shaking or displacement of the ground. Sometimes, they cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and damage of property. There are two types of earthquake that occurs naturally, they are tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes that are caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way by breaking and sliding along fault planes. Volcanic earthquakes are earthquakes which are caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes. In volcanic regions earthquakes may be caused both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions.

The size of an earthquake is usually reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale. Earthquakes which are 3 on the Richter scale or lower are hard to notice. Whereas, those which are 7 on the Richter scale causes serious damage over large areas.


E-mail is a popular communication facility. Every day, people in this world who have internet access send billions of e-mail messages. E-mail can send any messages around the world.

An e-mail is simply only a text message. In the beginning and even today, e-mail messages contain a short piece of text. At present, attachment makes many e-mail messages quite longer. With attachments, e-mail messages continue to be more sophisticated. It can send audio files, audio-video files, pictures, documents, etc. People can register to a certain email service provider. They will get their email address in the format of —- (email account)@—-(email service provider). The “@” sign is
to indicate that the user is ‘at’ some service provider.

With the World Wide Web, email starts to be made available with friendly web by providers such as Yahoo and Hotmail. Now, e-mail is usually without charge. Everyone has at least one email address. At present, e-mail is used by not just millions, but hundreds of millions of people.

Fax Machine

Fax, the short term for facsimile is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies (facsimiles) of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network. The word telefax, short for telefacsimile, for “make a copy at a distance”, is also used as a synonym. The device is also known as a telecopier in certain industries. When sending documents to people at large distances, faxes have a distinct advantage over postal mail in that the delivery is nearly instantenous, yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral.


Flood is an overflow of water that soaks or covers land. Floods are the most frequent type of natural disaster worldwide. It can be caused by several things, naturally and form the effect of human behavior. The most common cause is because of the over capacity of the body of water, e.g. river or lake. As a result some of the water flows outside of the body of water. It can also occur in rivers, when the strength of the river is so high that it flows right out of the river channel. A flood from sea may be caused by a heavy storm, a high tide, a tsunami, or a combination the three.

Soil and vegetation absorbs most of the surface water, floods happen when there are lack of trees and the soil alone cannot absorb all the water. The water then runs off the land in quantities that cannot be carried in stream channels or kept in natural ponds or man-made reservoirs. A flood can also be caused by blocked sewage pipes and waterways, such as the Jakarta flood.

There are several types of flood. Periodic floods occur naturally on many rivers, forming an area known as the flood plain. These river floods usually result from heavy rain, sometimes combined with melting snow, which causes the rivers to overflow their banks. A flood that rises and falls rapidly with little or no advance warning is called a flash flood.

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